DISASTROUS CAMPAIGNS 421 and at last the treaty was signed. The royal consent was given only just in time, for Paskievich was preparing to march, on Teheran and had been promised by the disloyal chiefs of Azerbaijan the support of fifteen thousand cavalry. The Modification of the Definitive Treaty with Gnat Britain.—The Persian Government held that the occupa- tion of the district of Gokcha by Russia was the cause of the war and that Great Britain was consequently bound by the Definitive Treaty of 1814 to come to her aid. The British view, and the just view, was that Persia had waged an aggressive war. It was, however, realized that, had Russia been the aggressor and had her troops invaded Persian territory, Great Britain would have been placed in the awkward position of supporting the Shah in a war waged against a power with which she herself was on friendly terms. Sir John Macdonald, who had come to the rescue of Abbas Mirza by advancing him money in his dire need, succeeded in negotiating an agreement by which, in return for a payment of 200,000 tomans, Articles 3 and 4 of the treaty were cancelled.1 This sum of money was urgently needed by Abbas Mirza, and upon its receipt General Paskievich evacuated Tabriz. The cancelling of the two articles by Sir John Macdonald proves that that able diplomatist had realized the change in the position of Persia referred to above ; a change which had already been indicated by the transfer of the direction of affairs at Teheran from London to Calcutta. By this deletion of treaty provisions that would have been inapplicable to the new situation he rendered a signal service to Great Britain, while the cash payment was invaluable to her stricken ally. The Murder of Grebalodov^ 1828.—The year in which the treaty of Turkomanchai was signed was singularly un- 1 Aitchhorfs Treaties, p. 57. Article 3 of the Definitive Treaty, after declaring its pur- pose to be "strictly defensive'* and its object that of "repelling the aggression of enemies," went on to state that "the limits of the territories of the two States of Russia and Persia shall be determined according to the admission of Great Britain, Persia and Russia/* Article 4 provided that, in case any European nation invaded Persia, Great Britain should, if the Persian Government required assistance, send from India " the force required," or, in lieu thereof, should pay an annual subsidy of two hundred thousand tomans towards the cost of a Persian army. But this subsidy was not to be paid if the war was " produced by an aggression on the part of Persia."